Institutional Affiliation: Brandeis University
Information about this author at RePEc
NBER Working Papers and Publications
|November 2004||Autopsy on an Empire: Understanding Mortality in Russia and the Former Soviet Union|
with : w10868
Male life expectancy at birth fell by over six years in Russia between 1989 and 1994. Many other countries of the former Soviet Union saw similar declines, and female life expectancy fell as well. Using cross-country and Russian household survey data, we assess six possible explanations for this upsurge in mortality. Most find little support in the data: the deterioration of the health care system, changes in diet and obesity, and material deprivation fail to explain the increase in mortality rates. The two factors that do appear to be important are alcohol consumption, especially as it relates to external causes of death (homicide, suicide, and accidents) and stress associated with a poor outlook for the future. However, a large residual remains to be explained.
Published: Brainerd, Elizabeth and David M. Cutler. "Autopsy On An Empire: Understanding Mortality In Russia and The Former Soviet Union," Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2005, v19(1,Winter), 107-130. citation courtesy of
|August 2002||Importing Equality? The Impact of Globalization on Gender Discrimination|
with : w9110
While researchers have long held that discrimination cannot endure in an increasingly competitive environment, there has been little work testing this dynamic process. This paper tests the hypothesis (based on Becker 1957) that increased competition resulting from globalization in the 1980s forced employers to reduce costly discrimination against women. The empirical strategy exploits differences in market structure across industries to identify the impact of trade on the gender wage gap: because concentrated industries face little competitive pressure to reduce discrimination, an increase in competition from increased trade should lead to a reduction in the gender wage gap. We compare the change in the residual gender wage gap between 1976 and 1993 in concentrated versus competitive m...
Published: Sandra E. Black & Elizabeth Brainerd, 2004. "Importing equality? The impact of globalization on gender discrimination," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 57(4), pages 540-559, July. citation courtesy of