Kenneth Leonard

Department of Agriculture and Resource Economics
2200 Symons Hall
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742
Tel: (301) 405 8589

E-Mail: EmailAddress: hidden: you can email any NBER-related person as first underscore last at nber dot org
Institutional Affiliation: University of Maryland

NBER Working Papers and Publications

January 2008Gender Differences in Competition: Evidence from a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society
with Uri Gneezy, John A. List: w13727
This study uses a controlled experiment to explore whether there are gender differences in selecting into competitive environments across two distinct societies: the Maasai in Tanzania and the Khasi in India. One unique aspect of these societies is that the Maasai represent a textbook example of a patriarchal society whereas the Khasi are matrilineal. Similar to the extant evidence drawn from experiments executed in Western cultures, Maasai men opt to compete at roughly twice the rate as Maasai women. Interestingly, this result is reversed amongst the Khasi, where women choose the competitive environment more often than Khasi men, and even choose to compete weakly more often than Maasai men. We view these results as potentially providing insights into the underpinnings of the factors h...

Published: Uri Gneezy & Kenneth L. Leonard & John A. List, 2009. "Gender Differences in Competition: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(5), pages 1637-1664, 09. citation courtesy of

June 2003Outcome Versus Service Based Payment in Health Care: Lessons from African Traditional Healers
with Joshua Graff Zivin: w9797
We compare the more common physician compensation method of fee-for-service to the less common payment-for-outcomes method. This paper combines an investigation of the theoretical properties of both of these payment regimes with a unique data set from rural Cameroon in which patients can choose between outcome and service based payments. We show that consideration of the role of patient effort in the production of health leads to important differences in the performance of these contracts. Theory and empirical evidence show that when illnesses require (or are responsive to) large amounts of both patient and practitioner effort, outcome based payment schemes are superior to effort based schemes. The traditional healer -- a practitioner who offers health services on an outcome-contingent bas...

Published: Kenneth L. Leonard & Joshua Graff Zivin, 2005. "Outcome versus service based payments in health care: lessons from African traditional healers," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(6), pages 575-593. citation courtesy of

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